Designing Floor Joists Residential Construction
Apa performance rated i joists pris are manufactured in accordance with pri 400 performance standard for apa ews i joists form x720 this performance standard provides an easy to use table of allowable spans for applications in residential floor construction allowing designers and builders to select and use i joists from various member manufacturers using just one set of span.
Designing floor joists residential construction. Normal spacing is 16 inches on center from center to center though some floors may have joists on 12 inch or 24 inch centers. See the image below for an example of joists spaced 16 on center 16 o c. At most home improvement centers you can also have your lumber cut to the desired specifications when you order it.
Section r502 10 of the international residential code states that header joists can be the same size as the floor joists when the header joist span isn t greater than 4 feet but if the header joist span is more than 4 feet you ll need to double the header joist and ensure that it s capable of supporting the floor joist framing. For example if you double the thickness or number of joists in a floor the distance the boards can span will increase by approximately 25. The width of a board is an important factor in determining the distance a floor joist can span playing a much larger role than the thickness.
Chapter 3 design loads for residential buildings typical load combinations used for the design of table 3 1 components and systems1 component or system foundation wall gravity and soil lateral loads headers girders joists interior load bearing walls and columns footings gravity loads exterior load bearing walls and. Standard dimensional lumber heavy timber as in timber framing or post and beam construction open web joists and wooden i joists are the options i typically choose from depending on the situation. All the figures are based on normal domestic floor loadings where the floor construction is typically 18 25mm floor boards sheets with up to 12 5mm thick plasterboard and skim underneath.
Joist sizing and spacing are determined by building codes. Chapter 4 floor construction 71 the primary design consideration in choosing the minimum size and the maximum span and spacing of floor joists trusses beams girders and headers is adequate support for dead and live vertical loads as prescribed by the code depending on the uses that a floor must support. The floor joist spacing is the distance between the centers of any two installed joists.
To frame a floor that s 12 feet 3 7 m x 18 feet 5 5 m you would need 4 12 ft 3 7 m sill plate boards 4 18 ft 5 5 m rim joist boards and 9 18 ft 5 5 m main floor joists. The following table gives details of allowable spans and spacing between joists for the most common timber sizes used in floor construction.
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